The first settlement in Pergamon, meaning castle, is Akropolis. It welcomes visitors to the city with all its glory. Today, you can get up to Akropolis with a cable car, with an amazing view of Pergamon along the way. Akropolis is at a height of 300 meters. The palaces of the Pergamon kings, the theater, holy grounds, temples, the agora, gymnasion, heroon and other Roman Era remnants can be found on this magnificent peak.
During the Pergamon dig, which started in 1877, the Altar of Zeus, the most important find in the dig was unearthed. However, it is on display in the Berlin Pergamon Museum, thousands of kilometers away from its home. This altar, which was built in the Hellenistic Era and is one of the best examples of altar architecture and sculpture, which was dedicated to Athena, was made in the time of Eumenes the second, was made in memoriam of their victory against the Galatians. On the 120 meter long, 2.30 meter tall embossed frieze on the foundation, scenes a battle between the Gigants and the Gods of Olympus are portrayed.
Another magnificent structure in the ruin is the Traian Temple, with its dizzying height. Three sides of the temple are surrounded by galleries.
The world's steepest theater (around 70 degrees) is also in Akropolis. It holds 15 thousand people, has 80 rows, the elevation distance between the highest row and the orchestra is 36 meters.
Over the theater’s terrace is the Athena Holy Ground, which is Pergamon’s oldest temple, though only the foundation remains. The temple was devoted to Zeus and the city’s goddess Athena.
The library, made in the Hellenistic Era and the second largest of its time with around 200 thousand written works, was given to the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra by Antonius when the city was conquered by Rome. The Pergamon, with their own invention parchment paper, created a large cultural treasure with these books and were on par with Alexandria and Ephesus.
The palaces in Akropolis, which are simpler compared to the temples, the storehouses, the detailed waterways and the upper agora (marketplace) are all very impressive.
The Demeter Holy Grounds, the Hera Holy Grounds and the Dionysus Temple, built in the Ion style, in Akropolis are stunning structures.
A short while ago with the Pergamon Municipality’s “History Comes Alive in 3D” project QR codes were added to the boards next to the ancient structures. This way, visitors can see 3D models of the Red Yard, the Zeus Temple, the Athena Temple, the Zeus - Asklepion Temple from two thousand years ago with a free app.