The Kingdom of Pergamum experiencing its most glorious years during the reign of King Eumenes II and showed great development in the field of arts and science. Thus Pergamon Library reached a position to compete with the Alexandria Library in Egypt. The Kingdom of Egypt has concerned about this development and thus prohibited the papyrus exportation to Pergamum.


Eumenes II ordered a substitute for papyrus. Krates from Sardis who is the director of Pergamon Library along with his title as a scientist and grammarian and his assistant Irodiks submitted to the king a paper produced by goat and yeanling skin, being stretched and dried. This material seemed convenient for the writing and named as “Pergaminae Chartae” which become “Parchment” later on. This new material would illuminate the way for the science and the birth of the book.


The Pergamum Library which was developed even better after the innovation of Parchment used to the have 200 thousand bundles of books about literature, arts and science.